1. Learning a language is easy.
这是一个 主语+动词+表语 (SVP)句型。句中learning a language为动名词短语，在句子中做主语。再如：
Forgetting the past means betrayal.(忘记过去就意味着背叛。)
1) 阅读英语比讲英语容易。 (Reading English is easier than speaking it.)
2) 集邮是我弟弟的爱好。(Collecting stamps is my little brother''s hobby.)
2. Even a child can do it.
even在句中作副词用，加强语气，表示“甚至(…也)，连(…都)”。如：He even didn''t trust his best friend.(他甚至不信任他最好的朋友。)
请注意even与 even if / though的区别并翻译下面的句子：
1) 这个我连听都没听过。(I haven''t even heard of it.)
2) 即使花了数天时间复习，他也没能考好。(He didn''t do well in the exam even though he spent days reviewing.)
3. Most adults who are learning a second language would disagree with this statement.
句中who are learning a second language为定语从句，修饰先行词most adults，再如：
The man who wrote this book is a teacher.(写这本书的人是一位教师。)
(The boy who is in a blue jacket is our monitor.)
(The book that you lent me yesterday is very interesting.)
A picnic without you wouldn''t be fun.(野餐没你参加会很没意思。)
1) 表示过去将来时：I felt confident that everything would be all right.
2) 表示意愿：I asked him not to do it， but he wouldn''t listen to me.
3) 表示习惯性：Every evening， we would go for a walk along the river.
4) 表示虚拟，假设，条件：If you had come earlier， you would have seen him.
5) 表示婉转地请求或建议：Would you look after my cat while I am away?
4. They need hundreds of hours of study and practice， and even this will not guarantee success for every adult language learner.
注意句中hundreds of hours的用法，阅读课本第六页注解2.
1) 十个学生 ten students
数十个学生 tens of students
2) 五百年 five hundred years
数百年 hundreds of years
3) 两千年 two thousand years
数千年 thousands of years
4) 三百万美元 three million dollars
数百万美元 millions of dollars
5. Language learning is different from other kinds of learning.
句中be different from 意为“与…不同”，如：My opinion is different from yours.(我的观点与你的观点不同。)
Man is different from all the other animals in his ability to learn and use a language.
Man differs from all the other animals in his ability to learn and use a language.
The greatest difference between man and all the other animals is his ability to learn and use a language.
6. … find it difficult to succeed in language learning.
… find it difficult to succeed in other fields.
句中的it是形式宾语(formal object)，真正的宾语(real object)是不定式to succeed in language learning，此类用法在英语中很常见，请注意掌握。如：At first I found it difficult to remember all these new words.(开始我感到记住这些单词很难。)
(The noise outside made it difficult for me to go on with my work.)
(They consider it a waste of time to argue any further.)
(She thought it right to tell Xiao Wang the truth.)
7. Language teachers often offer advice to language learners.
1) He offered me a cup of tea after I sat down. (我坐下后他给我端来一杯茶。)
2) What suggestions would you like to offer to those young teachers? (对这些新教师你有什么建议要提吗?)
3) This shop offers all kinds of stationery.(这家商店供应各种文具。)
4) The old man offered me 100 yuan for the used bike.
5) She offered to help me with my English.(她表示愿意帮我学英语。)
句中的advice为不可数名词，其后不加s，正如课本第六页注解3所说，有许多东西在汉语中是可数的，在英语中却是不可数的。如news， information， paper 等，若要表示“一个”这类概念，就必须加a piece of这类定语，例如：
a piece of news
a piece of advice
a sum of money
a piece of bread
8. Read as much as you can.
句中的much 是副词，用副词作同等比较时，可以用as … as和so … as 这种结构，如：
1) Read as much as you can and your vocabulary will be enlarged.(尽量多阅读，你的词汇量就会扩大。)
2) We must arrange everything as well as we can.(我们要把一切尽可能地安排好。)
3) Please give me a call as soon as possible.(请尽早给我打电话。)
4) I don''t speak English so well as you.(我英语讲得没你好。)
9. Practice speaking the language every day.
作动词用时，其后只能跟动名词，不能跟不定式。如：It is really no fun to practice running in such hot weather.(在这样炎热的天气里练跑步可真不是好玩的。)
10. Language learning research shows that successful language learners are similar in many ways.
that successful language learners are similar in many ways 是宾语从句。在非正式场合下that引导宾语从句时可省略。如：I think (that) you are right.
(The little boy admitted that he broke the window.)
2) 大量证据表明他是有罪的。(Plenty of evidence shows that he is guilty.)
3) 我保证将会给他更多的帮助。(I promised that I would give him more help.)
11. … they discover their own way to learn the language. to learn the language
不定式做定语，例如：Is it the best way to solve the problem?(这是解决问题的最好方法吗?)
1) 他没有勇气承认自己是无知的。(He has no courage to say that he is ignorant.)
2) 这将是一个交流思想的好机会。(This will be a good opportunity to exchange ideas.)
3) 他们在会上没有发言权。(They had no right to speak at the meeting.)
12. Instead of waiting for the teacher to explain， they try to find the patterns and rules for themselves.
动词不定式to explain和名词 teacher构成复合结构，作wait for的宾语，称为复合宾语。此类用法在英语中很常见，例如：
1) I''ll get someone to repair the bike for you.(我去找人来帮你修自行车。)
2) He wants you to call him in the afternoon.(他要你下午给他打电话。)
3) The teacher is waiting for the students to answer the questions.(老师在等学生们回答问题。)
4) You can count on him to give you full support.(你放心，他会给你全力支持。)
请注意 instead of 与 instead 的区别：
1) Instead of staying at home watching TV， he went out for a walk.
He didn''t stay at home watching TV， instead he went out for a walk.
2) Instead of having milk for breakfast， he had a cup of coffee.
He didn''t have milk for breakfast， instead he had a cup of coffee.
13. When they guess wrong， they guess again.
1) He was annoyed that he had been given some wrong information.(wrong adj.错误的)
2) I knew I had wronged her terribly when I gave her all the complaints.(wrong v. 冤枉)
3) The whole class burst into laughter when the teacher pronounced her name wrong.(wrong adv.错，不对)
14. … they look for such a chance.
1) I''ve never seen such beautiful scenery.(我从没见过这样美丽的景色。)
2) He didn''t expect that the audience would give him such a response.(他没料想到观众们会给予如此反应。)
3) She didn''t feel like going out on such a cold day.(她不想在如此寒冷的日子里出门。)
1) The question was so difficult that nobody could answer it.
2) His eyesight was so poor that he couldn''t see anything clearly.
3) He ran so fast that nobody could catch up with him.
15. It is more important for them to learn to think in the language than to know the meaning of every word.
不定式短语to learn to think in the language是句子的真正主语。it常常被用来代替不定式，在句子中充当形式主语，而把真正的主语移到句子后面去，这样使句子显得比较平稳。为了说明不定式表示的动作是谁做的，便在不定式前加for引起的短语。又如：
1) It is not at all difficult for him to understand the poem.
2) It is necessary for us to lend him a helping hand at this time.
more important than是形容词比较级形式，请翻译下面的句子：
1) 汤姆的年龄比玛丽大。(Tom is older than Mary.)
2) 这本书比那本书更有趣。(This book is more interesting than that one.)
3) 我们班的学生人数比他们班的多。(There are more students in our class than in theirs.)
16. … you have probably been learning independently， actively， and purposefully.
1) He has been working for a whole day.
2) They have been watching TV for two hours.
1) 老李已经在南京生活了二十年。(Lao Li has been living in Nanjing for 20 years.)
2) 雨下多久了?(How long has it been raining?)
3) 我等了他一个多小时了。(I have been waiting for him for more than an hour.)
17. … if your language learning has been less than successful， you might do well to try some of the techniques outlined above.
less than用在形容词的前面是为了给所要表述的内容增加否定意味。又如：It would be less than fair to put all the blame on him.(把所有的责任都加在他身上是不太公平的。)
1) 父亲对他的成绩不太满意。(Father was less than satisfied with his performance.)
2) 这个计划远不够完美。(The plan was a good deal less than perfect.)
do well to do sth. 的意思是“最好…做”，如：She would do well to go away from these