Text A Fallacies about Food
1. be eager to do sth./be eager for sth. 渴望做某事/动词词组
2. be supposed to do sth. 应该，被认为去做某事;it is supposed that 人们认为
3. be supplied to sb. 把某物提供给某人
4. substitute A for B 用A来替换B/动词或名词词组
5. wash sth. down sth. 用什么来涑下什么/动词词组
6. have to do with/have nothing to with/have much to do with与某人或某事有关/无关/很有关
2. 使役动词：Eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer. Make后用动词原形;同样make也是可以带宾语补足语的动词，e.g. eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.
Think也可以带宾语补足语。E.g. People thought tomatoes poisonous.
3. may have done sth. 表示对过去的推测e.g. He may have cried yesterday. 他昨天有可能哭了。She may have found a job last week. 她有可能上个星期已经找到工作了。
5. it is/was thought that 有人认为
7. Later another wrong idea about tomatoes grew up. Tomato的复数形式需要在词末加es.
Idea grows up. 出现某种观点。
8. 冠词问题：World War II;the Second World War
Text B Do Animals Think?
1. a great deal 非常/副词词组，放在动词后;a great deaf of +n.(不可数)大量
2. be true with(of) sb./sth. 什么什么也是真的;如此/动词词组
3. as well 也/副词词组，放在句末
4. be engaged in sth./doing 忙于做某事/动词词组
5. search for 寻找/动词词组
6. in some respects 在一些方面/介词词组
7. take care of 照顾/动词词组
8. make improvement in 在哪方面取得进步
9. by instinct 本能地/副词词组
10. think out 周密考虑/动词词组
11. speak of 说到/动词词组
12. let sb./sth. out 释放/动词词组
13. a variety of 多种多样的/表量词组
14. have no knowledge of sth/sb./doing sth. 对什么人/什么事/做某事一无所知/动词词组
2. 倒装句：hardworking as they are. 此处的as表示although或though，尽管的意思，但用as时，需要把形容词或副词放在句首+as+顺状语序。该句话翻译成：尽管他们很努力工作。E.g. Although I love you much， I still can't help you. 可以转换成：Much as I love you， I still can't help you. E.g. Though this movie is very moving， I still can't afford time to see it. 可以转换成：Moving as this movie is， I still can't afford time to see it.
3. sober冷静的/严肃的;其比较级是 more sober
4. could have done/could have been done 本可以做或被做的事而没有做。
could not have done/could not have been done 本不可能做或被做的事而作了
5. 主语+is not long in doing sth 做某事不会花很长时间
6. 难句：Many of things that animals know how to do they seem to know either without learning， or in some way which we cannot understand. 词句话为倒装语序，顺装应为：They seem to know many of things that animals know how to do， either without learning， or in some way which we cannot understand. 其中：either…or…表示“要么…要么…” 把此句可以翻译成：它们似乎知道很多动物做事的方法，这些方法要么不是靠学到的，要么就是以我们所不理解的方式知道的。
7. 重要句型：We never see frogs engaged in sport.
The owl always looks as if he were considering some important question.(as if的句型里出现了虚拟语气，由于是对现在的虚拟，所以采用了系动词were的形式)
Now，if he had had his wits about him， he would have known that there was no use in building a dam where there was no water.(此句为对过去虚拟的句型，原则为if条件句型用助动词had加上动词的过去分词形式，主句用情态动词would等加上have done 的形式;本句第二个had是have one‘s wits 这个词组的动词过去分词形式;另外，此处的there was no use in 后面只能接动词的ing 形式)
Animals think much while building their houses.(此句话为省略句型之所以用building，一方面是因为在时间状语从句里省略了语主句相同的主语animals和系动词are，另一方面是因为animals 可以发出build的动作，所以用主动的doing形式)
They are said to do sth. 据说……
It is by this instinct that birds build their nests and beavers their dams and huts.(本句话为强调句型;划线部分为强调句型的基本配置，划线部分之间是被强调成分)
The reason why…做某事的原因
It is plain that +从句 很明显
Their minds are so much unlike outs that they do not know the difference between right and wrong. (此句为so …that…句型;unlike为adj.表示不像)