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2017年中南财经政法大学自考英语(一)考前要点复习十

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本课主要构词法

  Affixation  (词缀法)

  1. 反意词前缀un-    unusual,unwilling

  2. 形容词后缀-y    salty

  3. 名词后缀-or    sailor

  Compounding   (合词法)

  1. 复合名词    highway,steamship,airplane

  2. 复合形容词    mid-Atlantic,eastward

  本课简介

  The Atlantic Ocean向读者介绍了有关大西洋的情况。我们可以了解航行大西洋的过去和现在,也可以了解大西洋“制造”出来的世界之最。

  本课主要语言点

  1. The Atlantic Ocean is one of the oceans that separate the Old World from the New.

  在表示河流,海洋,群岛,沙漠等地理名称的名词前,以及以复数形式出现的国名前要用定冠词,例如:the Yellow River(黄河),the Pacific Ocean(太平洋),the British Isles (不列颠群岛),the Sahara(撒哈拉沙漠),the Alps(阿尔卑斯山脉), the Philippines (菲列宾)

  在表示某一座山,岛屿或某一个湖时不用定冠词,例如:Yellow Mountain(黄山),Lake Erie(伊利湖),Hainan Island(海南岛)

  one of +复数名词是英语中常见的用法,请翻译下面的句子:

  She is one of the most hardworking students in our class. (她是我们班学习最刻苦的学生之一。)

  Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in the world.(上海是世界最大的城市之一。)

  印度是世界上人口最多的国家之一。 (India is one of the countries with the largest population in the world.)

  尼罗河是世界上最长的河流之一。(Nile is one of the longest rivers in the world.)

  在one of +复数名词+定语从句的结构中,定语从句一般被看作修饰复数名词,因此该从句中的谓语要用复数形式。例如:

  This is one of the best novels that have been published this year. (这是今年出版的最佳小说之一。)

  Mr. Smith is one of those men who always think they are right.(史密斯先生属于那些总是认为自己正确的人。)

  He is not one of those who bow before difficulties.(他不是那种在困难面前低头的人。)

  但是在the only one of +复数名词+定语从句的结构中,定语从句应该被看成修饰单数名词。例如:

  He was the only one of the boys who was praised by the teacher. (他是男孩中唯一受到老师表扬的。)

  Helen is the only one of those girls who doesn't wear make-up. (海伦是那些女孩中唯一不化妆的。)

  separate from是常用词组,在句子中的意思是“(使)分离,(使)分开”,请翻译下面的句子:

  1)英吉利海峡把英法两国隔开。(The English Channel separates England from France.)

  2)理论不应该脱离实际。(Theory should not be separated from practice.)

  the Old world指欧,亚,非三洲,有时仅指欧洲。the New (World) 指哥伦布发现的美洲大陆。

  2. For centuries it kept the Americas from being discovered by the people of Europe.

  for centuries 意为“许多世纪”。在英语中用介词for加表示时间的复数名词的表达形式很常见。请翻译下面的句子:

  1)I haven't seen you for days. How is everything?(多日不见,一切都好吗?)

  2)I haven't seen him for years, I am sure he has changed a lot. (我多年没见到他了,他一定变了不少。)

  3)It seems I have been waiting for you for centuries. Where have you been?(我似乎等了你几个世纪了,你去哪儿了?)

  keep… from doing 是习惯用法,意思是“使…不…”。

  例如:It is really not easy to keep Father from smoking.(要使父亲不抽烟真不容易。)

  请翻译下面的句子:

  1)Heavy fog kept the ships from being discovered by the enemy. (大雾使得船只未被敌人发现。)

  2)We had no way to keep him from getting involved in the matter. (我们没有办法使他不卷入那事件中去。)

  3)那种药使他的咳嗽不再加剧。 (The medicine keeps his cough from getting more serious.)

  4)当地人的保守思想使得那个地方不能快速发展。

  (The local people's conservative mind keeps that place from developing rapidly.)

  3. Many wrong ideas about the Atlantic made early sailors unwilling to sail far out into it.

  make sb. unwilling to do sth. 意为“使得某人不愿做某事”。例如:His indifference to work made everybody unwilling to cooperate with him.(他对工作的冷漠态度使得所有的人都不愿与他合作。)

  主语+动词+宾语+补语(SVOC)的句型在课本第二单元的语法中已有较详细的论述。请翻译下面的句子:

  1)His behavior at the dinner party made the host annoyed. (他在晚宴上的行为使主人很恼火。)

  2)That film made him famous.(那部影片使他出了名。)

  3)他刚才的一番话使玛丽很伤心。(What he said just now made Mary very sad.)

  4)老师对他作文的评价令他失望。 (The teacher's comment on his composition made him disappointed.)

  5)What he had done made his friends hesitant to accept the invitation.(他的所为使得他的朋友们对接受邀请犹豫不决。)

  6)他的挥霍浪费使得他的父母不愿意再给他钱。(His unthriftiness made his parents unwilling to give him any more money.)

  4. One idea was that it reached out to “the edge of the world”。

  Another idea was that at the equator the ocean would be boiling hot.

  这两个都是表语从句和主句中的系动词连用的句子。结构为:主语+系动词+表语从句。请看下面的例句:My idea is that we contact him as soon as possible.(我的想法是我们应该尽快跟他联系。)

  请翻译下面的句子:

  1) My suggestion is that we should put off the meeting.(我的建议是我们应该把会议延期。)

  2) One advantage of solar energy is that it will never be used up. (太阳能的一个优点是用之不竭。)

  3) 问题是你不在时谁照管孩子。 (The problem is who will take care of the children while you are away.)

  4) 看起来天要下雨。(It looks that it is going to rain.)

  请注意辨析another 和other:

  another由 an+other构成,只和单数可数名词连用。other可用于所有名词前。another+单数名词表示不定的“另一个”,the other+单数可数名词表示特指的“另一个”。

  请看下面的例句:

  1) This idea is not very practical, will you think of another one? (这个主意不太实际,你能另想一个吗?)

  2) This book is too difficult. Show me another one.(这本书太难了,给我看另外一本。)

  3) Of the three books in my bag, two are published in China, the other is published in the United States.(我包里的三本书中,两本是中国出版的,另一本是美国出版的。)

  4) Tom is here, but where are the other boys?(汤姆在这儿,其他的男孩在哪儿呢?)

  5) I like this coat better than the other one.(两件上衣中,我更喜欢这一件。)

  6) This camera is more expensive than the other one.(这架照相机比另一架贵。)

  boiling hot意思是“滚热的,酷热的”。此处的boiling不是形容词而是副词,表示热的程度,修饰hot.

  5. Sailors were afraid that they might sail right off the earth.

  此句中,that引导的名词性从句作形容词的补足语。例如:

  1) I am afraid that I can not finish the article in two hours. (我担心我两小时内写不完这篇文章。)

  2) He was afraid that he couldn't give you a definite answer. (他担心他不能给你一个明确的答复。)

  3) I am afraid that I have made a mistake.(我担心自己犯了一个错误。)

  4) We are confident that we can overcome all the difficulties. (我们相信自己能克服所有的困难。)

  对“be + 形容词 + that引起的从句”这类结构,语法家们有的认为that从句做宾语用,有的认为that从句做状语用。根据句子的逻辑意义来判断也许比较方便一些。如:I'm sorry that you failed the exam again. 这个句子中的that从句起状语作用,相当于“…because you failed the exam again.”

  6. The Atlantic Ocean is only half as big as the Pacific,…

  在第一单元中我们讨论过副词的同等比较。本句中as big as 则是形容词的同等比较。在这类句子中,可以有表示程度的状语。例如:

  1) This book is not half as interesting as that one.(这本书还不如那本书一半有趣。)

  2) My monthly income is only half as much as his.(我的月收入只有他的一半多。)

  3) This year our university will enroll three times as many students as it did the year before last.(我们学校今年的招生人数将是前年的三倍。)

  请翻译下面的句子:

  1) 我的英语口语还不及你的一半流利。(My spoken English is not half as fluent as yours.)

  2) 这只手提箱还没有那只手提箱一半重。(This suitcase is not half as heavy as that one.)

  3) 这个房间是那个房间的两倍。(This room is twice as large as that one.)

  7. But suppose no more rain fell into it and no more water was brought to it by rivers.

  suppose 常常做动词用,意思是“假定;猜想;认为”。例如:

  1) Let's suppose it to be true.(让我们假定这是真的。)

  2) I suppose he is very nervous.(我猜想他很紧张。)

  3) I supposed him to be an honest man, but he often tells lies. (我以为他很诚实,他却经常说谎。)

  在本句中suppose(也可以用supposing)是一个连词,意思是“假设(= if);假使…结果会怎么样”。例如:

  1) Suppose he is ill, what shall we do?(假如他病了,我们怎么办?)

  2) Suppose a tiger should come out of the cage? (如果一只老虎从笼子中跑出来怎么办?)

  3) Suppose something should go wrong?(如果出了什么问题会怎么样?)

  8. It would take the ocean about 4000 years to dry up.

  it takes (sb.) some time to do sth. 是很常用的一个句型。例如:

  1) 我骑自行车到学校要花半小时。(It takes me half an hour to get to school by bike.)

  2) 他花了两个星期时间才看完那本书。(It took him two weeks to finish reading that book.)

  请翻译下面的句子:

  1) It took the boy three hours to finish his homework.(那个男孩花了3小时才写完作业。)

  2) It takes less than 4 hours to get to Shanghai by train from Nanjing.(从南京乘火车到上海只要不到4小时。)

  3) 他花了4天时间才走出密林。(It took him 4 days to go out of the forest.)

  4) 照顾一个生病的老人要花许多时间。(It will take a great deal of time to look after a sick old man.

  9. On the average the water is a little more than two miles deep, but in places it is much deeper.

  on the average在句子中的意思是“平均而言”。例如:

  1) On the average, they drove 70 miles an hour.(他们平均每小时行驶70英里。)

  2) On the average, they spend 20 yuan on food every day.(他们平均每天花20块钱吃饭。)

  a little 在句子中修饰more,表示程度,意思是“一点儿,稍许”。much在句子中修饰deeper,也表示程度,加强形容词比较级,意思是“…多”。例如:

  1) I feel a little cold.(我觉得有点冷。)

  2) He spent a little more than 20 yuan yesterday.(昨天他花了20块多一点儿。)

  3) I feel much better now.(我现在感觉好多了。)

  4) She is much more careful this time.(她这一次细心多了。)

  请翻译下面的句子:

  1) 干了一天的工作,我觉得有点累。(I feel a little tired after a day's work.)

  2) 她对她的同学有点不友好。(She is a little unfriendly to her classmates.)

  3) 听了那个消息他开心多了。(He was much happier after hearing that news.)

  10. This “deep” measures 30,246 feet——almost 6 miles (9.6km)。

  本句中的deep做名词用,意思是“深处”,“海渊”(水深超过3000英里)。

  measure 在句子中做动词用,意思是“测量”,“有…深”。例如:

  1) This room measures 10 metres across.(这个房间宽10米。)

  2) The bridge measures 17 kilometres long.(这座桥长17公里。)

  3) The water tank only measures 2 metres deep.(这只水箱只有2米深。)

  11. One of the longest mountain ranges of the world rises from the floor of the Atlantic.

  本句中的 longest与课文前几段中出现的narrowest,saltiest,deepest一样,都是形容词的最高级形式。因为这几个词是单音节词或是以元音结尾的双音节词,所以,最高级的构成是在词尾加-est.对于大部分两个音节以上的形容词,最高级的构成是在形容词前面加most.请看例句:

  1) He wants to make everybody believe that he is the happiest person in the world.(他想使每一个人相信他是世界上最幸福的人。)

  2) This is the strongest horse I have ever seen.(这是我所见过的最强壮的马。)

  3) The boss wanted to find the most careful employees.(老板想找最细心的雇工。)

  4) 黄山是我所知道的最美的山之一。(Yellow Mountain is one of the most beautiful mountains I have ever known.)

  5) 这条高速公路是中国最长的。(This express way is one of the longest in China. )

  6) 这本书是三本书中最有意思的。(This book is the most interesting of the three.)

  rise 是一个不及物动词,在句子中的意思是“升起;隆起”。例如:

  1) The sun rises in the east.(太阳在东方升起。)

  2) Give the child some medicine, his temperature is rising.  (给孩子服药,他的体温在升高。)

  3) The mountain peak rises above the clouds.(山峰高耸入云。)

  请注意区别以下动词:

  1) rise 不及物动词 (起立;上升,高耸;浮现)

  The old lady rose to her feet when she heard the doorbell.

  The tower rises to a height of 70 feet.

  An idea rises in my mind.

  2) raise 及物动词 (举起;养育;提高;召集)

  If you have any questions, please raise your hands.

  When Father was in the army, Mother had a hard time raising three children.

  The management promised to raise the workers'salary after the negotiation.

  He failed to raise the money for his father's heart operation.

  3) arise 不及物动词 (升起;出现;由…引起)

  Heavy smoke arose beyond the mountain.

  New problems arise when old ones are solved.

  His illness arose from malnutrition.

  4) arouse 及物动词 (唤醒;激起,引起)

  The noise outside aroused him from sleep.

  The music aroused a feeling of homesickness in him.

  floor在句子中的意思是“海底”。在其他语言环境中,floor当然有其他的意思。如;

  1) He lives on the seventh floor.(他住在7楼。)

  2) The wood floor gives a feeling of warmth in the winter. (冬天时,木地板给我温暖的感觉。)

  3) He was given the floor at the meeting.(他在会上得到了发言权。)

  4)He decided to floor the kitchen with plastic tiles.(他决定用塑料砖铺厨房地面。)

  12. The tops of a few of the mountains reach up above the sea and make island

  top 在句中做名词用,意思是“顶部,山顶”。例如:

  1) He was the first to climb to the top of the hill.(他第一个爬上山顶。)

  2) When we stand on the top of the mountain, the whole city is in sight.(我们站在山顶时,整个城市尽收眼底)

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